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Phase heritage during replacement reactions in Ti-bearing minerals

Pearce, M and Escolme, A ORCID: 0000-0003-2980-8946 2021 , 'Phase heritage during replacement reactions in Ti-bearing minerals' , Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, vol. 176, no. 3 , pp. 1-18 , doi: 10.1007/s00410-021-01775-8.

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Replacement reactions occur during metamorphism and metasomatism in response to changes in pressure, temperature and bulk rock and fluid compositions. To interpret the changes in conditions, it is necessary to understand what phases have previously been present in the rocks. During fluid-mediated replacement, the crystallography of the replacement phases is often controlled by the parent reactant phase. However, excessive fluid fluxing can also lead to extreme element mobility. Titanium is not mobile under a wide range of fluid compositions and so titanium-bearing phases present an opportunity to interpret conditions from the most extreme alteration. We map orientation relationships between titanium-bearing phases from ore deposits using EBSD and use symmetry arguments and existing relationships to show that completely consumed phases can be inferred in ore deposits. An ilmenite single crystal from Junction gold deposit is replaced by titanite, rutile and dolomite. The rutile has the following well-documented orientation relationship to the ilmenite [0001]ilmenite // rutile and ilmenite // [ 001]rutile The anatase is a single crystal and shows a potential orientation relationship [0001]ilmenite = (0001)ilmenite // {211}anatase and ilmenite // anatase The single crystal orientation and lack of symmetrical equivalent variants suggest nucleation dominates the anatase production. Dolomite grew epitaxially on the ilmenite despite only sharing oxygen atoms suggesting the surface structure is important in dolomite nucleation. Titanite partially replaced ilmenite during metasomatism at Plutonic gold deposit. The titanite orientation is weakly related to the ilmenite orientation by the following relationship: [0001]ilmenite // titanite and { 10Ī0}ilmenite // (001)titanite The prevalence of subgrain boundaries in the titanite suggests multiple nucleation points on an already deformed ilmenite needle leading to the formation of substructure in the absence of deformation. Existing known topotaxial replacement relationship can be used to infer completely replaced phases using the misorientation distributions of the replacement polycrystals. Orientation modelling for a cubic phase replaced by rutile in a sample from Productora tourmaline breccia complex shows misorientation distributions consistent with Rutile // cubic and Rutile // cubic Combining this with volume constraints and assuming Ti is immobile, the composition of the cubic phase is constrained as titanomagnetite with 85% ulvospinel. Complex microstructures with domanial preferred orientations can also be used to document the microstructure of replaced phases. An aggregate of rutile grains with two parts that share a common axis is interpreted as having replaced a twinned ilmenite grain. Modelling shows that the misorientation distribution for the aggregate is consistent with the above relationship replacing ilmenite with a { 10Ī2 } twin.

Item Type: Article
Authors/Creators:Pearce, M and Escolme, A
Keywords: rutile, ilmenite, titanite, EBSD, replacement, pseudomorph
Journal or Publication Title: Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISSN: 0010-7999
DOI / ID Number: 10.1007/s00410-021-01775-8
Copyright Information:

© The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH, DE part of Springer Nature 2021

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