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Characterization and genome analysis of phage AL infecting Pseudoalteromonas marina

Zhang, X, Zhang, F, Mi, Y, Liu, Y, Zheng, K, Zhou, Y, Jiang, T, Wang, M, Jiang, Y, Guo, C, Shao, H, He, H, He, J, Liang, Y, Wang, M and McMinn, A ORCID: 0000-0002-2133-3854 2021 , 'Characterization and genome analysis of phage AL infecting Pseudoalteromonas marina' , Virus Research, vol. 295 , pp. 1-8 , doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198265.

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Although Pseudoalteromonas is an abundant, ubiquitous, marine algae-associated bacterial genus, there is still little information on their phages. In the present study, a marine phage AL, infecting Pseudoalteromonas marina, was isolated from the coastal waters off Qingdao. The AL phage is a siphovirus with an icosahedral head of 53 ± 1 nm and a non-contractile tail, length of 99 ± 1 nm. A one-step growth curve showed that the latent period was approximately 70 min, the rise period was 50 min, and the burst size was 227 pfu/cell. The genome sequence of this phage is a 33,582 bp double-stranded DNA molecule with a GC content of 40.1 %, encoding 52 open reading frames (ORFs). The order of the functional genes, especially those related to the structure module, is highly conserved and basically follows the common pattern used by siphovirus. The stable order has been formed during the long-term evolution of phages in the siphovirus group, which has helped the phages to maintain their normal morphology and function. Phylogenetic trees based on the major capsid protein (mcp) and genome-wide sequence have shown that the AL phage is closely related to four Pseudoalteromonas phages, including PHS21, PHS3, SL25 and Pq0. Further analysis using all-to-all BLASTP also confirmed that this phage shared high sequence homology with the same four Pseudoalteromonas phages, with amino acid sequence identities ranging from 44 % to 71 %. In particular, their similarity in virion structure module may imply that these phages share common assembly mechanism characteristics and infection pathways. Pseudoalteromonas phage AL not only provides basic information for the further study of the evolution of Pseudoalteromonas phages and interactions between marine phage and host but also helps to explain the unknown viral sequences in the metagenomic databases.

Item Type: Article
Authors/Creators:Zhang, X and Zhang, F and Mi, Y and Liu, Y and Zheng, K and Zhou, Y and Jiang, T and Wang, M and Jiang, Y and Guo, C and Shao, H and He, H and He, J and Liang, Y and Wang, M and McMinn, A
Keywords: virus, Pseudoalteromonas genome, Pseudoalteromonas phage, siphovirus, complete genome, phylogenetic analysis
Journal or Publication Title: Virus Research
Publisher: Elsevier Science Bv
ISSN: 0168-1702
DOI / ID Number: 10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198265
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© 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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