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Knowledge assessment of snake antivenom among healthcare practitioners involving educational intervention in northern Nigeria: a study protocol


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Bala, AA, Jatau Abubakar, I, Yunusa, I, Mohammed, M, Mohammed, A-KH, Isa, AM, Wada, AS, Gulma, KA, Bello, I, Michael, GC, Malami, S and Chedi, BZA 2020 , 'Knowledge assessment of snake antivenom among healthcare practitioners involving educational intervention in northern Nigeria: a study protocol' , Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety, vol. 11 , pp. 1-7 , doi: 10.1177/2042098620935721.

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IntroductionSnakebite envenoming (SBE) is an important occupational and public health hazard especiallyin sub-Saharan Africa. For optimum management of SBE, adequate knowledge of Snakeantivenom (SAV) is very critical among the healthcare practioners in this region. Informationrelated to the knowledge of SAV use in the management of SBE, as well as SAV logistics isscarce among the Health Care Professionals (HCPs) in Nigeria, particularly in the northernregion. We therefore aimed to develop, validate and utilize a tool to assess the SAV knowlegdeamong HCPs in northern Nigeria. We also sought to implement and evaluate an interventionthat could improve the SAV knowledge among the HCPs.MethodsThe proposed study will be conducted in three phases: Phase I will involve the developmentof the item-pool to be included in the tool, followed by a face, content validity and constructvalidity. The tool reliability, readability and difficulty index will be determined. Phase II willinvolve the utilization of the tool to assess baseline SAV knowledge among the HCPs followedby an educational intervention. Multiple Linear Regression analysis will be used to determinethe factors associated with SAV knowledge among the HCPs. Lastly, Phase III which will be arepeat of Phase II to assess and evaluate the knowledge after the intervention.DiscussionThe study design and findings may guide future implementation and streamline theintervention of improving SAV knowledge in HCPs training and practice.

Item Type: Article
Authors/Creators:Bala, AA and Jatau Abubakar, I and Yunusa, I and Mohammed, M and Mohammed, A-KH and Isa, AM and Wada, AS and Gulma, KA and Bello, I and Michael, GC and Malami, S and Chedi, BZA
Keywords: snake, healthcare professionals, knowledge, Nigeria, protocol, venom
Journal or Publication Title: Therapeutic Advances in Drug Safety
Publisher: Sage Publications Ltd.
ISSN: 2042-0986
DOI / ID Number: 10.1177/2042098620935721
Copyright Information:

© The Author(s), 2020. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 License ( which permits non-commercial use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access pages (

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