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Four steps for the Earth: mainstreaming the post-2020 global biodiversity framework


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Milner-Gulland, EJ, Addison, P, Arlidge, WNS, Baker, J, Booth, H, Brooks, T, Bull, JW, Burgass, MJ, Ekstrom, J, zu Ermgassen, SOSE, Fleming, LV, Grub, HMJ, von Hase, A, Hoffmann, M, Hutton, J, Juffe-Bignoli, D, ten Kate, K, Kiesecker, J, Kumpel, NF, Maron, M, Newing, HS, Ole-Moiyoi, K, Sinclair, C, Sinclair, S, Starkey, M, Stuart, SN, Tayleur, C and Watson, JEM 2020 , 'Four steps for the Earth: mainstreaming the post-2020 global biodiversity framework' , One Earth, vol. 4, no. 1 , pp. 75-87 , doi: 10.1016/j.oneear.2020.12.011.

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The upcoming Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) meeting, and adoption of the new Global Biodiversity Framework, represent an opportunity to transform humanity's relationship with nature. Restoring nature while meeting human needs requires a bold vision, including mainstreaming biodiversity conservation in society. We present a framework that could support this: the Mitigation and Conservation Hierarchy. This places the Mitigation Hierarchy for mitigating and compensating the biodiversity impacts of developments (1, avoid; 2, minimize; 3, restore; and 4, offset, toward a target such as "no net loss" of biodiversity) within a broader framing encompassing all conservation actions. We illustrate its application by national governments, sub-national levels (specifically the city of London, a fishery, and Indigenous groups), companies, and individuals. The Mitigation and Conservation Hierarchy supports the choice of actions to conserve and restore nature, and evaluation of the effectiveness of those actions, across sectors and scales. It can guide actions toward a sustainable future for people and nature, supporting the CBD's vision.

Item Type: Article
Authors/Creators:Milner-Gulland, EJ and Addison, P and Arlidge, WNS and Baker, J and Booth, H and Brooks, T and Bull, JW and Burgass, MJ and Ekstrom, J and zu Ermgassen, SOSE and Fleming, LV and Grub, HMJ and von Hase, A and Hoffmann, M and Hutton, J and Juffe-Bignoli, D and ten Kate, K and Kiesecker, J and Kumpel, NF and Maron, M and Newing, HS and Ole-Moiyoi, K and Sinclair, C and Sinclair, S and Starkey, M and Stuart, SN and Tayleur, C and Watson, JEM
Keywords: conservation, mitigation, hierarchy, no net loss, net gain, Convention on Biological Diversity, restoration, offsetting, cities, Indigenous peoples and local communities, business
Journal or Publication Title: One Earth
Publisher: Cell Press
ISSN: 2590-3330
DOI / ID Number: 10.1016/j.oneear.2020.12.011
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Copyright 2021 The Authors. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (

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