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A systematic review of online examinations: a pedagogical innovation for scalable authentication and integrity

Butler-Henderson, K ORCID: 0000-0002-6082-2108 and Crawford, J ORCID: 0000-0002-2191-6216 2020 , 'A systematic review of online examinations: a pedagogical innovation for scalable authentication and integrity' , Computers and Education, vol. 159 , pp. 1-12 , doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2020.104024.

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Abstract

Digitization and automation across all industries has resulted in improvements in efficiencies and effectiveness to systems and process, and the higher education sector is not immune. Online learning, e-learning, electronic teaching tools, and digital assessments are not innovations. However, there has been limited implementation of online invigilated examinations in many countries. This paper provides a brief background on online examinations, followed by the results of a systematic review on the topic to explore the challenges and opportunities. We follow on with an explication of results from thirty-six papers, exploring nine key themes: student perceptions, student performance, anxiety, cheating, staff perceptions, authentication and security, interface design, and technology issues. While the literature on online examinations is growing, there is still a dearth of discussion at the pedagogical and governance levels.

Item Type: Article
Authors/Creators:Butler-Henderson, K and Crawford, J
Keywords: adult learning applications, architectures for educational technology system, human-computer interface, pedagogical issues
Journal or Publication Title: Computers and Education
Publisher: Pergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd
ISSN: 0360-1315
DOI / ID Number: 10.1016/j.compedu.2020.104024
Copyright Information:

Copyright 2020 Elsevier Ltd.

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