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Oligodendrogenesis and myelination regulate cortical development, plasticity and circuit function

Fletcher, JL ORCID: 0000-0003-2009-0798, Makowiecki, K ORCID: 0000-0003-4550-3819, Cullen, CL ORCID: 0000-0001-6929-6258 and Young, KM ORCID: 0000-0002-1686-3463 2021 , 'Oligodendrogenesis and myelination regulate cortical development, plasticity and circuit function' , Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology , doi: 10.1016/j.semcdb.2021.03.017.

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During cortical development and throughout adulthood, oligodendrocytes add myelin internodes to glutamatergic projection neurons and GABAergic inhibitory neurons. In addition to directing node of Ranvier formation, to enable saltatory conduction and influence action potential transit time, oligodendrocytes support axon health by communicating with axons via the periaxonal space and providing metabolic support that is particularly critical for healthy ageing. In this review we outline the timing of oligodendrogenesis in the developing mouse and human cortex and describe the important role that oligodendrocytes play in sustaining and modulating neuronal function. We also provide insight into the known and speculative impact that myelination has on cortical axons and their associated circuits during the developmental critical periods and throughout life, particularly highlighting their life-long role in learning and remembering.

Item Type: Article
Authors/Creators:Fletcher, JL and Makowiecki, K and Cullen, CL and Young, KM
Keywords: cortex, development, myelin, oligodendrocyte, cognition
Journal or Publication Title: Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology
Publisher: Academic Press Ltd Elsevier Science Ltd
ISSN: 1084-9521
DOI / ID Number: 10.1016/j.semcdb.2021.03.017
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Copyright 2021 the authors

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