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Type-2 Diabetes as a risk factor for severe COVID-19 infection


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Norouzi, M, Norouzi, S, Ruggiero, A, Khan, MS, Myers, S ORCID: 0000-0003-4793-3820, Kavanagh, K and Vemuri, R 2021 , 'Type-2 Diabetes as a risk factor for severe COVID-19 infection' , Microorganisms, vol. 9, no. 6 , pp. 1-17 , doi: 10.3390/microorganisms9061211.

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The current outbreak caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), termed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has generated a notable challenge for diabetic patients. Overall, people with diabetes have a higher risk of developing different infectious diseases and demonstrate increased mortality. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a significant risk factor for COVID-19 progression and its severity, poor prognosis, and increased mortality. How diabetes contributes to COVID-19 severity is unclear; however, it may be correlated with the effects of hyperglycemia on systemic inflammatory responses and immune system dysfunction. Using the envelope spike glycoprotein SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19 binds to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors, a key protein expressed in metabolic organs and tissues such as pancreatic islets. Therefore, it has been suggested that diabetic patients are more susceptible to severe SARS-CoV-2 infections, as glucose metabolism impairments complicate the pathophysiology of COVID-19 disease in these patients. In this review, we provide insight into the COVID-19 disease complications relevant to diabetes and try to focus on the present data and growing concepts surrounding SARS-CoV-2 infections in T2DM patients.

Item Type: Article
Authors/Creators:Norouzi, M and Norouzi, S and Ruggiero, A and Khan, MS and Myers, S and Kavanagh, K and Vemuri, R
Keywords: diabetes, SARS-CoV-2, immune response, adipose tissue, glucose metabolism, vaccines
Journal or Publication Title: Microorganisms
Publisher: MDPI AG
ISSN: 2076-2607
DOI / ID Number: 10.3390/microorganisms9061211
Copyright Information:

Copyright: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License, ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

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