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Changes in illicit drug use and markets with the COVID-19 pandemic and associated restrictions: findings from the Ecstasy and Related Drugs Reporting System, 2016-20

Price, O, Man, N, Bruno, R ORCID: 0000-0001-6673-833X, Dietze, P, Salom, C, Lenton, S, Grigg, J, Gibbs, D, Wilson, T, Degenhardt, L, Chan, R, Thomas, N and Peacock, A ORCID: 0000-0002-5705-2026 2021 , 'Changes in illicit drug use and markets with the COVID-19 pandemic and associated restrictions: findings from the Ecstasy and Related Drugs Reporting System, 2016-20' , Addiction , pp. 1-13 , doi: 10.1111/add.15620.

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Abstract

Aims: To describe (i) self-reported changes in drug use and (ii) trends in price, perceived availability, and perceived purity of illicit drugs, among people who regularly use ecstasy/ 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and other illicit stimulants in Australia following COVID-19 and associated restrictions.Design: Annual interviews with cross-sectional sentinel samples conducted face-to-face in 2016-19 and via video conferencing or telephone in 2020. Data were collected via an interviewer-administered structured questionnaire.Setting: Australian capital cities.Participants: Australians aged 16 years or older who used ecstasy/MDMA and other illicit stimulants on a monthly or more frequent basis and resided in a capital city, recruited via social media and word-of-mouth (n ~ 800 each year).Measurements: Key outcome measures were self-reported illicit drug market indicators (price, purity and availability) and, in 2020 only, perceived change in drug use (including alcohol and tobacco) since March 2020 and reasons for this change.Findings: For most drugs, participants reported either no change or a reduction in their use since COVID-19 restrictions were introduced. Ecstasy/MDMA was the drug most frequently cited as reduced in use (n = 552, 70% of those reporting recent use), mainly due to reduced opportunities for socialization. While market indicators were largely stable across most drugs, the odds of perceiving MDMA capsules as 'high' in purity decreased compared with 2016-19 [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.53-0.99], as did perceiving them as 'easy' to obtain (aOR = 0.42, CI = 0.26-0.67). The odds of perceiving cocaine and methamphetamine crystal as 'easy' to obtain also decreased (aOR = 0.67, CI = 0.46-0.96 and aOR = 0.12, CI = 0.04-0.41, respectively).Conclusions: After COVID-19-related restrictions were introduced in Australia, use of ecstasy/MDMA, related stimulants and other licit and illicit drugs mainly appeared to remain stable or decrease, primarily due to impediments to socialization.

Item Type: Article
Authors/Creators:Price, O and Man, N and Bruno, R and Dietze, P and Salom, C and Lenton, S and Grigg, J and Gibbs, D and Wilson, T and Degenhardt, L and Chan, R and Thomas, N and Peacock, A
Keywords: big events, COVID-19, MDMA, drug markets, harms, illicit drug, pandemic
Journal or Publication Title: Addiction
Publisher: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
ISSN: 0965-2140
DOI / ID Number: 10.1111/add.15620
Copyright Information:

© 2021 Society for the Study of Addiction

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