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Geochemistry of pyritic mudstones from the Singa formation, Malaysia: insights into gold potential, source of sulfur and organic matter

Makoundi, C, Endut, Z, Large, RR, Zaw, K ORCID: 0000-0003-0503-3461, Lounejeva, E, Leman, MS, Mohamed, KR and Basori, MB 2021 , 'Geochemistry of pyritic mudstones from the Singa formation, Malaysia: insights into gold potential, source of sulfur and organic matter' , Geosciences, vol. 11, no. 7 , pp. 1-22 , doi: 10.3390/geosciences11070279.

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Abstract

Major trace element analyses, including pyrite chemistry of pyritic mudstones of shallow-marine Singa Formation of Pennsylvanian–Early Permian age have been carried out to assess gold potential, the source of sulfur and organic matter. Regionally, Singa Formation spatially correlates with the Bohorok Formation (Sumatra, Indonesia), the Kaeng Krachang group (Thailand), and the Lebyin group (Burma or Myanmar). In Southeast Asia, this formation is important because it has a record of glacial processes that occurred along the northern margin of Gondwana in the Late Paleozoic age. This study has revealed that mudstones of the Singa Formation, which contain lonestones of glacial origin, deposited under suboxic–oxic conditions in shallow marine environment during Pennsylvanian–Early Permian time. The black mudstones contain total organic carbon which ranges from 0.1 to 0.7 wt.%, and gold content varying from 40 to 62 ppb, making them gold source rocks. This study has revealed diagenetic gold presence in the early pyrite generations (pyrites 1, 2, and 3) in these mudstones with gold content ranging up to 1.6 ppm Au which is indicative of early enrichment of gold. Conversely, late generations of pyrite (pyrites 4, 5, and 6) in these mudstones record low gold content up to 0.5 ppm Au. The δ34S values for pyrite grains range from −24.6‰ to +6.2‰ likely indicate a combination of magmatic and biogenic source of sulfur. Organic carbon isotope composition of the pebbly mudstone samples shows a wide range from −23.9‰ to −5.8‰ indicating a mixed terrestrial and marine source.

Item Type: Article
Authors/Creators:Makoundi, C and Endut, Z and Large, RR and Zaw, K and Lounejeva, E and Leman, MS and Mohamed, KR and Basori, MB
Keywords: gold, source rock, X-ray fluorescence analysis, geochemistry, Malaysia
Journal or Publication Title: Geosciences
Publisher: MDPI
ISSN: 2076-3263
DOI / ID Number: 10.3390/geosciences11070279
Copyright Information:

Copyright: © 2021 by the author. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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