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Associations between seven-year C-reactive protein trajectory or pack-years smoked with choroidal or retinal thicknesses in young adults


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Lee, SSY, Beales, DJ, Chen, FK, Yazar, S, Alonso-Caneiro, D and Mackey, DA 2021 , 'Associations between seven-year C-reactive protein trajectory or pack-years smoked with choroidal or retinal thicknesses in young adults' , Scientific Reports, vol. 11, no. 1 , pp. 1-12 , doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-85626-3.

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Inflammation and cigarette smoking predispose to macular diseases, and choroidal and retinal thinning. We explored the choroidal and retinal thicknesses in young adults against their 7-year C-reactive protein (CRP) level trajectory and pack-years smoked. Participants from the Raine study, a longitudinal cohort study, had serum CRP levels analysed at the 14-, 17-, and 20-year follow-ups. Group-based trajectory modelling was used to classify participants according to their 7-year CRP levels. At the 20-year follow-up (at 18–22 years old), participants completed questionnaires on their smoking history, and underwent optical coherence tomography imaging to obtain their choroidal and retinal thicknesses at the macula. Three CRP trajectories were identified: consistently low CRP levels (78% of sample), increasing (11%), or consistently high (11%). 340 and 1035 participants were included in the choroidal and retinal thickness analyses, respectively. Compared to those in the “Low” trajectory group, participants in the “Increasing” and “High” groups had 14–21 μm thinner choroids at most macular regions. Every additional pack-year smoked was linked with a 0.06–0.10 μm thinner retina at the inner and outer macular rings, suggesting a dose-dependent relationship between smoking and thinner retinas. These associations may suggest that an increased risk of future visual impairment or eye disease associated with these risk factors may be present since young adulthood.

Item Type: Article
Authors/Creators:Lee, SSY and Beales, DJ and Chen, FK and Yazar, S and Alonso-Caneiro, D and Mackey, DA
Journal or Publication Title: Scientific Reports
Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
ISSN: 2045-2322
DOI / ID Number: 10.1038/s41598-021-85626-3
Copyright Information:

© The Author(s) 2021. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, (, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made

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