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Ultra-trace determination of oxyhalides in ozonated aquacultural marine waters by direct injection ion chromatography coupled with triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry

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Sanz Rodriguez, E ORCID: 0000-0003-3443-6382, Lam, S, Smith, GG ORCID: 0000-0002-8677-1230, Haddad, PR ORCID: 0000-0001-9579-7363 and Paull, B ORCID: 0000-0001-6373-6582 2021 , 'Ultra-trace determination of oxyhalides in ozonated aquacultural marine waters by direct injection ion chromatography coupled with triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry' , Heliyon, vol. 7, no. 4 , pp. 1-9 , doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e06885.

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Abstract

A direct, robust, accurate and highly sensitive method for oxyhalide species in natural waters, including seawater, using suppressed ion chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (IC-MS) is described. The method utilised a high capacity, high efficiency anion-exchange column (Dionex IonPac AS11-HC, 4 mm, 2 × 250 mm), with the separation achieved using an electrolytically generated potassium hydroxide gradient, delivered at 0.380 mL min−1. Applying the method, detection limits for iodate, bromate, and chlorate in seawater after direct sample injection (20 μL injection volume, samples diluted 10-fold), were 11, 30 and 13 ng L−1 (ppt), respectively. Standard addition calibrations to ozonated seawater samples were linear, in all cases R2 > 0.999 (n = 10), with intra-day repeatability of 3.7, 11.2 and 1.8 % RSD (n = 10) for a low-level standard mixture (0.30 μg L−1 of iodate, 0.15 μg L−1 of bromate, and 1.50 μg L−1 of chlorate). The method was applied to the analysis of seawater samples taken pre- and post-disinfection points within a recirculating aquacultural system. Iodate, bromate and chlorate were detected as the main oxyanionic disinfection by-products, demonstrating the practical utility of the new method as a valuable tool for monitoring changes to seawater composition following disinfection treatments.

Item Type: Article
Authors/Creators:Sanz Rodriguez, E and Lam, S and Smith, GG and Haddad, PR and Paull, B
Keywords: oxyhalides, natural and saline waters, ozonation, ion chromatography, mass spectrometry, ultra-trace determination, aquacultural industry
Journal or Publication Title: Heliyon
Publisher: Elsevier Sci Ltd
ISSN: 2405-8440
DOI / ID Number: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e06885
Copyright Information:

© 2021 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

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