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Response bias reveals the role of interhemispheric inhibitory networks in movement preparation and execution

Puri, R ORCID: 0000-0002-0231-1369 and Hinder, M ORCID: 0000-0002-5240-4790 2022 , 'Response bias reveals the role of interhemispheric inhibitory networks in movement preparation and execution' , Neuropsychologia, vol. 165 , pp. 1-13 , doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2021.108120.

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Abstract

Human movement is influenced by various cognitive processes, such as bias, that dynamically shape competingmovement representations. However, the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the effects of bias onmovement selection across the lifespan remains poorly understood.Healthy young (n = 21) and older (n = 20) adults completed a choice reaction-time task necessitating left- orright-hand responses to imperative stimuli (IS). Response bias was manipulated via a cue that informed participants a particular response was 70% likely (i.e., the IS was either congruent, or incongruent, with the cue);biasing was either fixed for blocks of trials (block-wise bias) or varied from trial-to-trial (trial-wise bias). As wellas assessing the behavioural manifestations of bias, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation to determinechanges in corticospinal excitability (CSE) and short- and long-interval interhemispheric inhibition (SIHI, LIHI)during movement preparation and execution.Participants responded more quickly, and accurately, in congruent compared to incongruent trials. CSE decreases occurred in both hands following the cue, consistent with the ‘inhibition for impulse control’ hypothesisof preparatory inhibition. In contrast, IHI modulations occurred in a hand-specific manner. Greater SIHI wasobserved during movement preparation in the hand biased away from, compared to the hand biased towards, thecue; furthermore, greater SIHI was observed during movement execution in the hand biased towards the cuewhen it was not required to respond (i.e., incongruent trial) compared to when it was required to respond(congruent trial). Additionally, during the movement preparation period, the LIHI ratio of the hand biased towards, compared to the hand biased away from, the cue was greatest when the cue varied trial-by-trial.Overall, the IHI results provide support for the ‘inhibition for competition resolution’ hypothesis, with handspecific modulation of inhibition during movement preparation and execution.

Item Type: Article
Authors/Creators:Puri, R and Hinder, M
Keywords: inhibitory control, ageing, cognitive control
Journal or Publication Title: Neuropsychologia
Publisher: Pergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd
ISSN: 0028-3932
DOI / ID Number: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2021.108120
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© 2021 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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