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Sustaining transmission in different host species: the emblematic case of Sarcoptes scabiei

Browne, E, Driessen, MM ORCID: 0000-0003-2553-0027, Cross, PC, Escobar, LE, Foley, J, Lopez-Olvera, JR, Niedringhaus, KD, Rossi, L and Carver, SS ORCID: 0000-0002-3579-7588 2021 , 'Sustaining transmission in different host species: the emblematic case of Sarcoptes scabiei' , Bioscience, vol. 72, no. 2 , pp. 166-179 , doi: 10.1093/biosci/biab106.

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Abstract

Some pathogens sustain transmission in multiple different host species, but how this epidemiologically important feat is achieved remains enigmatic. Sarcoptes scabiei is among the most host generalist and successful of mammalian parasites. We synthesize pathogen and host traits that mediate sustained transmission and present cases illustrating three transmission mechanisms (direct, indirect, and combined). The pathogen traits that explain the success of S. scabiei include immune response modulation, on-host movement capacity, off-host seeking behaviors, and environmental persistence. Sociality and host density appear to be key for hosts in which direct transmission dominates, whereas in solitary hosts, the use of shared environments is important for indirect transmission. In social den-using species, combined direct and indirect transmission appears likely. Empirical research rarely considers the mechanisms enabling S. scabiei to become endemic in host species—more often focusing on outbreaks. Our review may illuminate parasites’ adaptation strategies to sustain transmission through varied mechanisms across host species.

Item Type: Article
Authors/Creators:Browne, E and Driessen, MM and Cross, PC and Escobar, LE and Foley, J and Lopez-Olvera, JR and Niedringhaus, KD and Rossi, L and Carver, SS
Keywords: epidemiology, sarcoptic mange, scabies, host pathogen traits, disease dynamics, pathogen persistence, endemic transmission
Journal or Publication Title: Bioscience
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISSN: 0006-3568
DOI / ID Number: 10.1093/biosci/biab106
Copyright Information:

Copyright 2021 The Author(s). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Institute of Biological Sciences.

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