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Distribution and location stability of the Australian ophthalmology workforce: 2014–2019

Allen, P ORCID: 0000-0003-1945-8049, Jessup, B ORCID: 0000-0001-9712-1703, Khanal, S, Baker-Smith, V, Obamiro, K ORCID: 0000-0002-0265-1953 and Barnett, T ORCID: 0000-0002-1376-6414 2021 , 'Distribution and location stability of the Australian ophthalmology workforce: 2014–2019' , International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 18, no. 23 , pp. 1-9 , doi:

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Objective: To investigate the ophthalmology workforce distribution and location stability using Modified Monash Model category of remoteness. Methods: Whole of ophthalmologist workforce analysis using Australian Health Practitioner Registration Agency (AHPRA) data. Modified Monash Model (MMM) category was mapped to postcode of primary work location over a six-year period (2014 to 2019). MMM stability was investigated using survival analysis and competing risks regression. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: Australia. Participants: Ophthalmologists registered with AHPRA. Main outcome measures: Retention within MMM category of primary work location. Results: A total of 948 ophthalmologists were identified (767 males, 181 females). Survival estimates indicate 84% of ophthalmologists remained working in MMM1, while 79% of ophthalmologists working in MMM2–MMM7remained in these regions during the six-year period. Conclusion: The Australian ophthalmology workforce shows a high level of location stability and is concentrated in metropolitan areas of Australia. Investment in policy initiatives designed to train, recruit and retain ophthalmologists in regional, rural and remote areas is needed to improve workforce distribution outside of metropolitan areas.

Item Type: Article
Authors/Creators:Allen, P and Jessup, B and Khanal, S and Baker-Smith, V and Obamiro, K and Barnett, T
Keywords: ophthalmology, workforce distribution, rural
Journal or Publication Title: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Publisher: MDPIAG
ISSN: 1660-4601
DOI / ID Number:
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© 2021. The Authors. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License ( The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

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