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Redshifted methanol absorption tracing infall motions of high-mass star formation regions

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Yang, WJ, Menten, KM, Yang, AY, Wyrowski, F, Gong, Y, Ellingsen, SP ORCID: 0000-0002-1363-5457, Henkel, C, Chen, X and Xu, Y 2022 , 'Redshifted methanol absorption tracing infall motions of high-mass star formation regions' , Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 658 , pp. 1-21 , doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/202142811.

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Abstract

Context: Gravitational collapse is one of the most important processes in high-mass star formation. Compared with the classic blue-skewed profiles, redshifted absorption against continuum emission is a more reliable method to detect inward motions within high-mass star formation regions.Aims: We aim to test if methanol transitions can be used to trace infall motions within high-mass star formation regions.Methods: Using the Effelsberg-100 m, IRAM-30 m, and APEX-12 m telescopes, we carried out observations of 37 and 16 methanol transitions towards two well-known collapsing dense clumps, W31C (G10.6−0.4) and W3(OH), to search for redshifted absorption features or inverse P-Cygni profiles.Results: Redshifted absorption is observed in 14 and 11 methanol transitions towards W31C and W3(OH), respectively. The infall velocities fitted from a simple two-layer model agree with previously reported values derived from other tracers, suggesting that redshifted methanol absorption is a reliable tracer of infall motions within high-mass star formation regions. Our observations indicate the presence of large-scale inward motions, and the mass infall rates are roughly estimated to be ≳10-3 M⊙ yr-1, which supports the global hierarchical collapse and clump-fed scenario.Conclusions: With the aid of bright continuum sources and the overcooling of methanol transitions leading to enhanced absorption, redshifted methanol absorption can trace infall motions within high-mass star formation regions hosting bright H II regions.

Item Type: Article
Authors/Creators:Yang, WJ and Menten, KM and Yang, AY and Wyrowski, F and Gong, Y and Ellingsen, SP and Henkel, C and Chen, X and Xu, Y
Keywords: stars: formation - ISM: kinematics and dynamics - ISM: individual objects: W3(OH) - ISM: individual objects: W31C(G10.6-0.4) - ISM: molecules - radio lines: ISM
Journal or Publication Title: Astronomy & Astrophysics
Publisher: E D P Sciences
ISSN: 0004-6361
DOI / ID Number: 10.1051/0004-6361/202142811
Copyright Information:

© W. J. Yang et al. 2022 Open Access article, published by EDP Sciences, under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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