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A sustained ocean observing system in the Indian Ocean for climate related scientific knowledge and societal needs

Hermes, JC, Masumoto, Y, Beal, LM, Roxy, MK, Vialard, J, Andres, M, Annamalai, H, Behera, S, D'Adamo, N, Doi, T, Feng, M, Han, W, Hardman-Mountford, N, Hendon, H, Hood, R, Kido, S, Lee, C, Lees, T, Lengaigne, M, Li, J, Lumpkin, R, Navaneeth, KN, Milligan, B, McPhaden, MJ, Ravichandran, M, Shinoda, T, Singh, A, Sloyan, B, Strutton, PG ORCID: 0000-0002-2395-9471, Subramanian, AC, Thurston, S, Tozuka, T, Ummenhofer, CC, Unnikrishnan, AS, Venkatesan, R, Wang, D, Wiggert, J, Yu, L and Yu, W 2019 , 'A sustained ocean observing system in the Indian Ocean for climate related scientific knowledge and societal needs' , Frontiers in Marine Science, vol. 6 , pp. 1-21 , doi:

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The Indian Ocean is warming faster than any of the global oceans and its climateis uniquely driven by the presence of a landmass at low latitudes, which causesmonsoonal winds and reversing currents. The food, water, and energy security in theIndian Ocean rim countries and islands are intrinsically tied to its climate, with marineenvironmental goods and services, as well as trade within the basin, underpinning theireconomies. Hence, there are a range of societal needs for Indian Ocean observationarising from the influence of regional phenomena and climate change on, for instance,marine ecosystems, monsoon rains, and sea-level. The Indian Ocean Observing System(IndOOS), is a sustained observing system that monitors basin-scale ocean-atmosphereconditions, while providing flexibility in terms of emerging technologies and scientific and societal needs, and a framework for more regional and coastal monitoring. Thispaper reviews the societal and scientific motivations, current status, and future directionsof IndOOS, while also discussing the need for enhanced coastal, shelf, and regionalobservations. The challenges of sustainability and implementation are also addressed,including capacity building, best practices, and integration of resources. The utility ofIndOOS ultimately depends on the identification of, and engagement with, end-usersand decision-makers and on the practical accessibility and transparency of data for arange of products and for decision-making processes. Therefore we highlight currentprogress, issues and challenges related to end user engagement with IndOOS, aswell as the needs of the data assimilation and modeling communities. Knowledge ofthe status of the Indian Ocean climate and ecosystems and predictability of its future,depends on a wide range of socio-economic and environmental data, a significant partof which is provided by IndOOS.

Item Type: Article
Authors/Creators:Hermes, JC and Masumoto, Y and Beal, LM and Roxy, MK and Vialard, J and Andres, M and Annamalai, H and Behera, S and D'Adamo, N and Doi, T and Feng, M and Han, W and Hardman-Mountford, N and Hendon, H and Hood, R and Kido, S and Lee, C and Lees, T and Lengaigne, M and Li, J and Lumpkin, R and Navaneeth, KN and Milligan, B and McPhaden, MJ and Ravichandran, M and Shinoda, T and Singh, A and Sloyan, B and Strutton, PG and Subramanian, AC and Thurston, S and Tozuka, T and Ummenhofer, CC and Unnikrishnan, AS and Venkatesan, R and Wang, D and Wiggert, J and Yu, L and Yu, W
Keywords: Indian Ocean, sustained observing system, IndOOS, data, end-user connections and application, regional observing system, interdisciplinary, integration
Journal or Publication Title: Frontiers in Marine Science
Publisher: Frontiers Research Foundation
ISSN: 2296-7745
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© 2019. The Authors. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License ( The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

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