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Longitudinal associations between falls and future risk of cognitive decline, the Motoric Cognitive Risk syndrome and dementia: the Einstein Ageing Study


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Jayakody, O, Blumen, HM, Breslin, M ORCID: 0000-0002-8135-3136, Ayers, E, Lipton, RB, Verghese, J and Callisaya, ML ORCID: 0000-0003-2122-1622 2022 , 'Longitudinal associations between falls and future risk of cognitive decline, the Motoric Cognitive Risk syndrome and dementia: the Einstein Ageing Study' , Age and Ageing, vol. 51, no. 3 , pp. 1-7 , doi: 10.1093/ageing/afac058.

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Backgroundfalls share risk factors with cognitive decline but whether falls predict cognitive decline, pre-dementia syndromes and dementia is poorly understood.Objectivesthis study aimed to examine if falls are associated with cognitive decline in specific domains and the risk of Motoric Cognitive Risk (MCR) syndrome and dementia.Designcross-sectional study.Methodsin older people (age 80.6 ± 5.3 years) free of dementia at baseline, the number of falls (none, one or multiple) during the year before enrolment and the first year of follow-up (exposure) were recorded. Decline in specific cognitive functions (global cognition, episodic verbal memory, verbal fluency, working memory, response inhibition and processing speed-attention), incident MCR and incident dementia were outcome measures. Linear mixed effects models were used to examine the associations between falls and cognitive decline, adjusting for confounders. Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine if falls predicted risk of incident MCR or dementia.Resultsof 522 eligible participants, 140 had a single fall and 70 had multiple falls. Multiple falls were associated with a greater decline in global cognition, episodic memory, verbal fluency and processing speed-attention compared to those with no falls (P Conclusionsmultiple falls may be an important marker to identify older people at greater risk of future cognitive decline and incident MCR.

Item Type: Article
Authors/Creators:Jayakody, O and Blumen, HM and Breslin, M and Ayers, E and Lipton, RB and Verghese, J and Callisaya, ML
Keywords: falls, multiple falls, cognitive decline, the Motoric Cognitive Risk syndrome, dementia, older people, cognition
Journal or Publication Title: Age and Ageing
Publisher: Oxford Univ Press
ISSN: 0002-0729
DOI / ID Number: 10.1093/ageing/afac058
Copyright Information:

The Author(s) 2022. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) License (, which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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