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Spatial and seasonal distribution of dissolved and particulate bioactive metals in Antarctic sea ice

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Duprat, L, Townsend, AT ORCID: 0000-0002-2972-2678, van der Merwe, P ORCID: 0000-0002-7428-8030, Meiners, KM and Lannuzel, D ORCID: 0000-0001-6154-1837 2021 , 'Spatial and seasonal distribution of dissolved and particulate bioactive metals in Antarctic sea ice' , Elementa, vol. 9, no. 1 , pp. 1-24 , doi: 10.1525/elementa.2021.00032.

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Abstract

Iron (Fe) has been shown to limit growth of marine phytoplankton in the Southern Ocean, regulating phytoplankton productivity and species composition, yet does not seem to limit primary productivity in Antarctic sea ice. Little is known, however, about the potential impact of other metals in controlling sea-ice algae growth. Here, we report on the distribution of dissolved and particulate cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) concentrations in sea-ice cores collected during 3 Antarctic expeditions off East Antarctica spanning the winter, spring, and summer seasons. Bulk sea ice was generally enriched in particulate metals but dissolved concentrations were similar to the underlying seawater. These results point toward an environment controlled by a subtle balance between thermodynamic and biological processes, where metal availability does not appear to limit sea-ice algal growth. Yet the high concentrations of dissolved Cu and Zn found in our sea-ice samples raise concern about their potential toxicity if unchelated by organic ligands. Finally, the particulate metal-to-phosphorus (P) ratios of Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn calculated from our pack ice samples are higher than values previously reported for pelagic marine particles. However, these values were all consistently lower than the sea-ice Fe:P ratios calculated from the available literature, indicating a large accumulation of Fe relative to other metals in sea ice. We report for the first time a P-normalized sea-ice particulate metal abundance ranking of Fe >> Zn ≈ Ni ≈ Cu ≈ Mn > Co ≈ Cd. We encourage future sea-ice work to assess cellular metal quotas through existing and new approaches. Such work, together with a better understanding of the nature of ligand complexation to different metals in the sea-ice environment, would improve the evaluation of metal bioavailability, limitation, and potential toxicity to sea-ice algae.

Item Type: Article
Authors/Creators:Duprat, L and Townsend, AT and van der Merwe, P and Meiners, KM and Lannuzel, D
Keywords: sea ice, East-Antarctica, metals, sea-ice algae, limitation, toxicity
Journal or Publication Title: Elementa
Publisher: University of California Press Journals Division
ISSN: 2325-1026
DOI / ID Number: 10.1525/elementa.2021.00032
Copyright Information:

Copyright: © 2021 The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC-BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, original author and source are credited. See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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