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Application of battery energy storage systems for primary frequency control in power systems with high renewable energy penetration

Amin, MR, Negnevitsky, M ORCID: 0000-0002-5130-419X, Franklin, E ORCID: 0000-0002-8146-2770, Alam, KS ORCID: 0000-0003-4903-6023 and Naderi, SB ORCID: 0000-0003-2868-2966 2021 , 'Application of battery energy storage systems for primary frequency control in power systems with high renewable energy penetration' , Energies, vol. 14, no. 5 , pp. 1-22 , doi:

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In power systems, high renewable energy penetration generally results in conventional synchronous generators being displaced. Hence, the power system inertia reduces, thus causing a larger frequency deviation when an imbalance between load and generation occurs, and thus potential system instability. The problem associated with this increase in the system’s dynamic response can be addressed by various means, for example, flywheels, supercapacitors, and battery energy storage systems (BESSs). This paper investigates the application of BESSs for primary frequency control in power systems with very high penetration of renewable energy, and consequently, low levels of synchronous generation. By re-creating a major Australian power system separation event and then subsequently simulating the event under low inertia conditions but with BESSs providing frequency support, it has been demonstrated that a droop-controlled BESS can greatly improve frequency response, producing both faster reaction and smaller frequency deviation. Furthermore, it is shown via detailed investigation how factors such as available battery capacity and droop coefficient impact the system frequency response characteristics, providing guidance on how best to mitigate the impact of future synchronous generator retirements. It is intended that this analysis could be beneficial in determining the optimal BESS capacity and droop value to manage the potential frequency stability risks for a future power system with high renewable energy penetrations.

Item Type: Article
Authors/Creators:Amin, MR and Negnevitsky, M and Franklin, E and Alam, KS and Naderi, SB
Keywords: battery storage, primary frequency control, synchronous generator retirement, high renewable energy penetration, non-synchronous generating sources, National Electricity Market, Australian energy market operator, integrated system plan
Journal or Publication Title: Energies
Publisher: MDPI AG
ISSN: 1996-1073
DOI / ID Number:
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Copyright: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) license (

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