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Hallegraeff, GM 2007 , 'Dinophyta:Dinophyceae', in PM McCarthy and AE Orchard (eds.), Algae of Australia: Introduction , Algae of Australia , ABRS, CSIRO, Canberra, Collingwood, pp. 319-323.

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Dinoflagellates are a remarkably diverse and complex group of mostly unicellular organisms
with both presumed primitive (prokaryote-like chromosomes) and highly evolved characters
(e.g. the ocellus of Nematodinium resembling a metazoan eye). About 1,500 living species have been described, but a further 2,O00 fossil taxa are also known from
sporopollenin cysts dating back at least 220 million years. About half of the species are photosynthetic, while the remainder have heterotrophic modes of nutrition
(saprophytic, phagocytic or parasitic). Fossil cysts are used extensively as stratigraphic markers in petroleum exploration. Dinoflagellate cysts from modern-day beds, induced to excyst in the laboratory, have elucidated the relationship between benthic and planktonic life
history stages for some 8O species.

Item Type: Book Section
Authors/Creators:Hallegraeff, GM
Publisher: ABRS, CSIRO
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