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Development of shy/bold behaviour in squid: contaxt-specific phenotypes associated with development plasticity


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Sinn, DL, Gosling, SD and Moltschaniwskyj, NA 2008 , 'Development of shy/bold behaviour in squid: contaxt-specific phenotypes associated with development plasticity' , Animal Behaviour, vol. 75, No. 2 , pp. 433-442 , doi: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2007.05.008.

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Animals often differ from one another in their willingness to take risks in a number of functional contexts
related to fitness (e.g. mating, dispersal, and foraging behaviour). Although several studies have reported
life history correlates and selective consequences of this variation in shy/bold behaviour, little attention
has been paid to developmental processes resulting in shy/bold phenotypes. Here, we present a lifetime
developmental study of shy/bold behaviour in dumpling squid, Euprymna tasmanica. Behaviour was measured
in two test contexts, a threat and a feeding test, at five times across the entire life span. Across test
contexts, shy/bold behaviour was not correlated at any age; while within a test context, individual shy/
bold phenotypes were consistent both before and after sexual maturity. During sexual maturity, different
phenotypes displayed different amounts of developmental variation; shyer animals were more plastic in
feeding tests, while bolder animals were more plastic in threat ones. Our results suggest that for some animals
shy/bold behaviour throughout development is uncorrelated across different contexts related to risk,
while within a context, there may still be developmental constraints to changing shy/bold behaviour. This
constraint within a functional context, however, may be phenotype-specific, with some phenotypes able
to change more than others. These results indicate that a greater understanding of developmental pathways
is needed to determine whether shy/bold phenotypes per se are the sole focus of selection. Differences
in developmental plasticity between shy/bold phenotypes may also confer differential fitness in
fluctuating environments.

Item Type: Article
Authors/Creators:Sinn, DL and Gosling, SD and Moltschaniwskyj, NA
Keywords: animal personality; behavioural syndromes; developmental plasticity; Euprymna tasmanica; shy/bold; southern dumpling squid
Journal or Publication Title: Animal Behaviour
ISSN: 003-3472
DOI / ID Number: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2007.05.008
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