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Glial modulation of the innate immune response: olfactory ensheathing cells join the melee?

Vincent, AJ, West, AK and Chuah, MI 2008 , 'Glial modulation of the innate immune response: olfactory ensheathing cells join the melee?', in M Durand and CV Morel (eds.), New Research on Innate Immunity , Nova Science Publishers, Inc, New York, pp. 317-327.

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Glial cells are now recognised to be important modulators of the innate immune response
in the nervous system. While the focus to date has primarily been on astrocytes and
Schwann cells, the immunomodulatory properties of a third class of macroglia, olfactory
ensheathing cells (OECs), also warrant investigation. OECs reside in the primary
olfactory system and ensheath the olfactory nerves along their length from the nasal
cavity to the olfactory bulbs in the central nervous system (CNS). Olfactory neurons are
unique among neurons in providing uninterrupted conduits for neurotropic pathogens to
spread from the external environment directly into the brain. There is continual turnover
of olfactory neurons throughout life and OECs phagocytose the axonal debris to facilitate
new axonal growth. Given that infected olfactory neurons undergo widespread apoptosis,
it is likely that OECs contribute to the innate immune response to such infections. This
chapter will discuss recent data demonstrating that OECs are immunocompetent cells in a
manner similar to astrocytes, and that this has significant implications for the use of
OECs in spinal cord transplantation therapies.

Item Type: Book Section
Authors/Creators:Vincent, AJ and West, AK and Chuah, MI
Keywords: NFkB, chemokines, Toll-like receptors, bacteria, PAMPs, microglia, phagocytosis
Publisher: Nova Science Publishers, Inc
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