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Spatio-temporal coral disease dynamics in the Wakatobi Marine National Park, South-East Sulawesi, Indonesia

Haapkyla, J, Unsworth, R K F, Seymour, A S and Melbourne-Thomas, J 2009 , 'Spatio-temporal coral disease dynamics in the Wakatobi Marine National Park, South-East Sulawesi, Indonesia' , Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, vol. 87, no. 1-2 , pp. 105-115 , doi:

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In the present study we investigated inter-annual coral disease dynamics, in situdisease
progression rates, and disease-associated coral tissue mortality in the Wakatobi Marine National
Park (WMNP) situated in the coral triangle in South-East Sulawesi, Indonesia. In 2005, only 2 known
syndromes were recorded within the sampling area transect surveys: white syndrome (WS; 0.42%
prevalence) and growth anomalies (GA; 0.15% prevalence), whilst 4 diseases were recorded in 2007:
WS (0.19%), Poritesulcerative white spot disease (PUWS; 0.08%), GA (0.05%) and black band dis-
ease (BBD; 0.02%). Total disease prevalence decreased from 0.57% in 2005 to 0.33% in 2007. In
addition to prevalence surveys, in situprogression rates of 4 diseases were investigated in 2007: BBD
on Pachyseris foliosa, P. rugosaand Diploastrea heliopora, WS on Acropora clathrata, and brown
band (BrB) and skeletal eroding band (SEB)diseases on Acropora pulchra. BrB and WS had the high-
est progression rates, 1.2 ±0.36 and 1.1 ±0.07 cm d–1, respectively, indicating that diseases may have
a significant impact on local Acroporapopulations. BBD had the lowest progression rate (0.39 ±
0.14cm d–1). WS caused the most severe recorded total tissue mortality: 53923 cm2over a period of
36 d. Sedimentation and coral cover were studied and a highly significant drop in coral cover was
observed. This study provides the first documentation of spatio-temporal coral disease dynamics from
Indonesia. Despite low total disease prevalence, progression rates comparable to the ones observed
in the Caribbean and Australia indicate that diseases may threaten the reef framework in some loca-
tions and add to the degradation of coral reefs in a region already at high risk from anthropogenic

Item Type: Article
Authors/Creators:Haapkyla, J and Unsworth, R K F and Seymour, A S and Melbourne-Thomas, J
Keywords: Coral Triangle · Indo-Pacific · Disease prevalence · Disease progression rates · Tissue mortality · Sedimentation
Journal or Publication Title: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
ISSN: 0177-5103
DOI / ID Number:
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