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The dynamics of bimanual coordination in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder


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Cayoun, BA 2008 , 'The dynamics of bimanual coordination in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder', PhD thesis, University of Tasmania.

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The present research examined how the inhibitory dysfunction observed in
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) affects bimanual
coordination in three experiments with unmedicated boys (aged 8 to 15)
with ADHD-C (with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder
(DCD)) and matched controls. Experiment 1 (N = 31, Mean age = 11 years :
9 months) explored the dynamics of bimanual circling using both free-hand
movements using circle templates and constrained movements using cranks.
Impairment in temporal stability was mostly attributable to difficulties in
controlling the spatial component of the task, which was more pronounced
in children with comorbid DCD. Experiment 2 (N = 32, Mean age = 12
years : 1 month) used a Stop-re-engagement paradigm (Change task) with a
continuous (hand-circling) task to investigate whether inhibitory deficits at
the central level of processing and/or allocation of effort in ADHD affect
movement coordination. The ADHD and ADHD/DCD groups showed a
lack of inhibitory control, as measured by Switch reaction time. However,
these children also displayed slower and more variable speed of execution
and the apparent inhibitory deficit was more associated with the reengagement
component of the task. Experiment 3 (N = 32, Mean age = 12
years : 1 month) used the Change Task, as traditionally delivered by
computer, to investigate the source of the poor response re-engagement.
Results showed a slow mode of information processing in ADHD groups
rather than a deficit in the processes necessary to inhibit a prepotent
response. Processing speed was most impaired in children with
ADHD/DCD, indicating that difficulties in cognitive flexibility and motor
coordination were the main deficits. The overall results are a better fit for
the hypothesis that ADHD involves a deficit in the regulation of energetic
states. It was concluded that children with ADHD without DCD do not
suffer from bimanual coordination impairment and that it is a necessity for
future bimanual coordination studies to control for the presence of comorbid
DCD in ADHD samples.

Item Type: Thesis - PhD
Authors/Creators:Cayoun, BA
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Copyright 2008 the author

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