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Mitigating sea turtle by-catch in coastal passive net fisheries.


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Gilman, E, Gearhart, J, Price, B, Eckert, S, Milliken, H, Wang, J, Swimmer, Y, Shiode, D, Abe, O, Peckham, H, Chaloupka, M, Hall, MF, Mangel, J, Alfaro-Shigueto, J, Dalzell, P and Ishizak, A 2010 , 'Mitigating sea turtle by-catch in coastal passive net fisheries.' , Fish and Fisheries, vol. 11, no. 1 , pp. 57-88 , doi: 10.1111/j.1467-2979.2009.00342.x.

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There is growing evidence that small-scale, coastal, passive net fisheries may be the
largest single threat to some sea turtle populations. We review assessments of turtle
interactions in these fisheries, and experiments on gear-technology approaches
(modifying gear designs, materials and fishing methods) to mitigate turtle by-catch,
available from a small number of studies and fisheries. Additional assessments are
needed to improve the limited understanding of the relative degree of risk coastal net
fisheries pose to turtle populations, to prioritize limited conservation resources and
identify suitable mitigation opportunities. Whether gear technology provides effective
and commercially viable solutions, alone or in combination with other approaches, is
not well-understood. Fishery-specific assessments and trials are needed, as differences
between fisheries, including in gear designs; turtle and target species, sizes and
abundance; socioeconomic context; and practicality affect efficacy and suitability of bycatch
mitigation methods. Promising gear-technology approaches for gillnets and
trammel nets include: increasing gear visibility to turtles but not target species, through
illumination and line materials; reducing net vertical height; increasing tiedown length
or eliminating tiedowns; incorporating shark-shaped silhouettes; and modifying float
characteristics, the number of floats or eliminating floats. Promising gear-technology
approaches for pound nets and other trap gear include: replacing mesh with ropes in the
upper portion of leaders; incorporating a turtle releasing device into traps; modifying the
shape of the trap roof to direct turtles towards the location of an escapement device;
using an open trap; and incorporating a device to prevent sea turtle entrance into traps.

Item Type: Article
Authors/Creators:Gilman, E and Gearhart, J and Price, B and Eckert, S and Milliken, H and Wang, J and Swimmer, Y and Shiode, D and Abe, O and Peckham, H and Chaloupka, M and Hall, MF and Mangel, J and Alfaro-Shigueto, J and Dalzell, P and Ishizak, A
Keywords: By-catch, gillnet, passive net fisheries, pound net, sea turtle, small-scale fisheries
Journal or Publication Title: Fish and Fisheries
ISSN: 1467-2960
DOI / ID Number: 10.1111/j.1467-2979.2009.00342.x
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