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Impacts of local human activities on the Antarctic environment.


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Tin, T, Fleming, ZL, Hughes, KA, Ainley, DG, Convey, P, Moreno, CA, Pfeiffer, S, Scott, JJ and Snape, I 2009 , 'Impacts of local human activities on the Antarctic environment.' , Antarctic Science, vol. 21, no. 1 , pp. 3-33 , doi: 10.1017/S0954102009001722.

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We review the scientific literature, especially from the past decade, on the impacts of human
activities on the Antarctic environment. A range of impacts has been identified at a variety of spatial and
temporal scales. Chemical contamination and sewage disposal on the continent have been found to be
long-lived. Contemporary sewage management practices at many coastal stations are insufficient to prevent
local contamination but no introduction of non-indigenous organisms through this route has yet been
demonstrated. Human activities, particularly construction and transport, have led to disturbances of flora
and fauna. A small number of non-indigenous plant and animal species has become established, mostly on
the northern Antarctic Peninsula and southern archipelagos of the Scotia Arc. There is little indication of
recovery of overexploited fish stocks, and ramifications of fishing activity on bycatch species and the
ecosystem could also be far-reaching. The Antarctic Treaty System and its instruments, in particular the
Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources and the Environmental Protocol,
provide a framework within which management of human activities take place. In the face of the
continuing expansion of human activities in Antarctica, a more effective implementation of a wide range of
measures is essential, in order to ensure comprehensive protection of the Antarctic environment, including
its intrinsic, wilderness and scientific values which remains a fundamental principle of the Antarctic Treaty
System. These measures include effective environmental impact assessments, long-term monitoring,
mitigation measures for non-indigenous species, ecosystem-based management of living resources, and
increased regulation of National Antarctic Programmes and tourism activities.

Item Type: Article
Authors/Creators:Tin, T and Fleming, ZL and Hughes, KA and Ainley, DG and Convey, P and Moreno, CA and Pfeiffer, S and Scott, JJ and Snape, I
Keywords: Antarctic Treaty System, contamination, ecosystem based management, human impacts, non-indigenous species, tourism
Journal or Publication Title: Antarctic Science
ISSN: 0954-1020
DOI / ID Number: 10.1017/S0954102009001722
Additional Information:

© Antarctic Science Ltd 2009

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